International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering-IJASRE

Emergence of bla TEM resistance gene in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates from Health facilities in Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria

Article Category: Health Sciences

DOI: 10.31695/IJASRE.2019.33456

Pages: 96-101

Author: Abba P O,Umeh E. U,Gberikon G. M.,Agbo E. B

Abstract: The emergence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing Escherichia coli represents a serious clinical concern in healthcare. β-lactamases produced by these strains of E. coli render ineffective cephalosporins and other β-lactam antibiotics used to treat infections caused by Gram–negative bacteria. We determined the presence of ESBL in 400 clinical isolates of E. coli isolated from various clinical specimens (urine, stool, blood, sputum, throat and wound swabs) from 216 female and 184 male patients with mean age of 28.1 ± 16.8 years (age range: 2 – 71 years), who were attending 6 selected health facilities in Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria.  Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out on the isolates using Kirby Bauer diffusion method. Presence of ESBLs was determined by the double disc synergy test (DDST). Specific primers were employed to characterize the ESBL gene using PCR. The isolates showed high level of resistance to all the antibiotics tested except mipenem. Highest resistance was to penicillin 392(98.0%) followed by ceftriaxone 385(96.3%). Out of the 400 isolates, 64 (16.0%) tested positive for ESBLs by DDST method, while PCR technique confirmed 47(11.8%) to harbour bla TEM genes. Isolates from blood specimens harboured highest percentage of ESBL genes 5(26.3%) and also plasmid-mediated bla TEM genes 5(26.3%), followed by wound swabs 9(17.3). The least percentage of plasmid-mediated bla TEM genes was carried by isolates from sputum specimens 1(8.3). Age group 45 to 58 years harboured the highest percentage of bla TEM genes 15(14.6%), while female patients, 27(12.5%) carried more bla TEM resistance genes than the male patients 20(10.9%). A prevalence of 11.8% (n=47) of bla TEM resistance gene has been reported for the present study. In view of multidrug resistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli bacteria circulating in the study location, prescription of antibiotics, especially cephalosporins should be based on laboratory results of antibiotic susceptibility tests that are carried out along with ESBL detection. Infection prevention and control strategies should be stepped up in the health facilities under study.

Keyword: Antibiotic resistance, E. coli, ESBL, Makurdi, TEM.

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