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International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering-IJASRE
Study of Seasonal Variation of Physicochemical Parameters of River Kaduna, Kaduna State Nigeria
Article Category: Biological Science
Author: Fadimatu Muhammad,Sa’idu Abdulkadir ,JehuAuta
Background: The physiochemical parameters of a river tell much about its quality and suitability for both humans and the survival of the living biota within it. The discharge of untreated wastewater into the surface water bodies such as streams and rivers results in the pollution of such water environments. We aimed to determine the physicochemical parameters and also determine the seasonal variation of the physicochemical parameters river Kaduna.
Methodology: The research was carried out within four areas in Kaduna North, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Selected sampling sites include; Gamji Park, Kabala Costain, Malali and Unguwar Rimi. Monthly sampling of the four sites was carried out from each sampling site for a period of eight months covering both the dry and the rainy season between 6:00 am and 8:00 am every sampling day. The following parameters were determined using standard laboratory techniques; temperature, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, water hardness, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. Data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics to calculate the mean, standard error (SE) and standard deviation of the parameters.
Results: The mean water temperature was 23.6±0.90C with a standard deviation of 2.5, the highest temperature (25.7±0.60C) was recorded in the wet season. Mean pH was 7.9±0.1 with a standard deviation of 0.4, the wet and the dry season had the same mean values of 7.9±0.1. The mean turbidity was 60.3±4.6 with a standard deviation of 12.8, the wet season had the highest value (72.5±2.4 NTU). Mean TDS was 72.1±13.9 with a standard deviation of 38.9 and the highest TDS value of 92.7±22.9 mg/L was recorded in the dry season. The mean values of electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand was 135±27.7µs/cm, 2.6±0.1mg/L and1.3±0.1mg/L respectively whereas water hardness, nitrate-nitrogen, and phosphate-phosphorus had means of 143.5±13.0 mg(CaCO3L-1, 0.3±0.0mg/L and 0.1±0.1mg/L respectively.
Conclusion: physicochemical parameters were determined to be within the permissible level and wide seasonal variations were seen among some parameters.
Keyword: Physicochemical Parameters, Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Turbidity, TDS.
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