Effects of Anthropogenic Activities on the Surface Water Quality of Idim Esiere Ebom Stream in Calabar South Lga, Cross River State, of Nigeria


  • Otu Amika Rivers State University, River State Nigeria.
  • Charles Obunwo Rivers State University, Nigeria
  • Ndokiari Boisa Rivers State University, Nigeria




Calaba, Water Quality, Sediments, Heavy Metals, Physicochemical Parameters


The Idim Esiere Ebom Stream is a major source of freshwater in Garden street, Calabar South LGA of Cross River State,  Nigeria, as well as a spring of potable water to the residents. However, there is the dearth of scientific information on the water quality of the stream; Thus, the need to evaluate its water quality. To this end, the effects of the physicochemical characteristics of the water quality and some heavy metals of the surface water and sediments of the Idim Esiere Ebom stream were studied. In this study, samples of the surface water and sediments were collected from 5 different stations of the stream monthly for 6 months (March-August) representing early wet (EW) season (March to May) and Peak wet (PW) season (June to August). The mean levels of the spatial and temporal distribution of Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Salinity, Total dissolved Solids, Electric conductivity, Turbidity, Biochemical Oxygen Demand) of surface water and heavy metals (Iron, Copper, Lead, Chromium, Cadmium and Nickel) of the surface water and sediments were determined. The results from the analysis were compared with national and international standards. From the results obtained, it was observed that levels of most physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals exceeded the permissible limits. In conclusion, the anthropogenic activities into the stream has an impact in some stations of the stream.


. UNEP, (2006). Water quality for ecosystem and human health, United Nations Environment Program/ Global Environment monitoring system (UNEP/GEMS) Program 2006, 1- 132.

Stark, J. R., Hanson, P. E.., Goldstein, R. M., Faloon, J. D., Fong, A. L., Lee, K. E., Kroening, S. E. and Andrews, W. J. (2001). Water quality I the upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota, Wisconsin, South Dakota, Lowa and North Dakota, 1995-98. United States Geological survey; Reston, VA, USA: 2001.

Kolawole, O. M., Ajibola, T. B. and Osuolala, O. O. (2008). Bacteriological investigation of waste water discharge run-off stream in Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences. 4:33-37.

Koshy, M., & Nayar, T. V. (1999). Water quality aspects of River Pamba. Pollution Resources. 18:501-510.

Obunwo, C.C., Braide, S. A., Izonfuo, W. A. L. and Chiindah, A. C. (2004). Influence of Urban activities on the water quality of a fresh water stream in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Nigerian Environmental Society 2(2), 196-209.

Maurits, J. W., (1989). Threats to the worlds water. Scientific American Journal. Vol. 261(3), pp. 80-97

Chandra, A., Mors, S., Ravindra, K. & Dahiya, R. P. (2006). Leachate characterization and assessment of groundwater pollution near municipal solid waste landfill site. Environmental Monitoring assessment, 118 (1-3):435-56.

World Health Organization (2011). Guideline for drinking water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 4th edition, 2011.

Abowei JFN, & George A. (2009). Some physical and chemical characteristics in Okpoka creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1:45-53

Oyem, H.H., Oyem, I. M., & Ezenweali, D. (2014). Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Chemical Oxygen Demand of groundwater in Boji-Boji Agbor/Owa Area and immediate suburbs. Research journal of Environmental Science

Rao, G. S., & Rao, G. N. (2010). Study of groundwater quality in greater Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh (India). Journal of Environmental Science Eng 52(2), 137 – 146.



How to Cite

Otu Amika, Charles Obunwo, & Ndokiari Boisa. (2020). Effects of Anthropogenic Activities on the Surface Water Quality of Idim Esiere Ebom Stream in Calabar South Lga, Cross River State, of Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering, IJASRE (ISSN: 2454 - 8006), 6(6), 87-95. https://doi.org/10.31695/IJASRE.2020.33803