Study of Profiling the Typical Fraudster in the General Education Sector in Zambia


  • Paul Bernandicto Ngosa School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia
  • Jason Mwanza Ministry of Religious Affairs and National Guidance, Lusaka, Zambia



Fraudster, General Education, Demographic, Zambia


Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to profile who the typical fraudster was in the general education sector.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional design enlisting staff at provincial and district education offices were enlisted in this study. A standardized survey questionnaire was used. Findings: The sample mean materiality scores were 46.86 (± SD 12.9) and fell below the benchmark of 52 of which fraud could be considered consequential. One sample t-test showed a statistically significant difference in perceived fraud materiality in the three groups (Gender of fraudster, age group of fraudster and job type of fraudster) p values were less than 0.05 (0.001). No associations were observed between the three selected demographic variables and materiality of fraud as p values were > 0.05. Just less than half, n = 238 (44.2%) perceived fraud to be committed by accounting staff and less than half, n = 182 (33.8.8%) was committed by bosses in league with accounting staff and just less than a quarter n = 119 (22.1%) of fraud was committed by bosses. Males n = 329 (61.0%) were more dominant in committing fraud than were females n = 210 (39.0%). The under 30 years age group were perceived to account for just about half n = 239 (44.3%) of fraud whereas the under 31 to 40 years age group were perceived to account for over a quarter n = 211 (39.1%) of fraud and far less than a quarter n = 89 (16.5%) for those above 40 years. Majority of the fraudsters n = 367 (68.1%) were extroverted as compared to n = 172 (31.9%) were introverted. Fraudsters were perceived with some respect and intelligence. The majority of peers n = 362 (67.2%) considered them on a continuum of Very well respected to being respected as compared to somewhat resected n = 177 (32.8%) of all cases surveyed. In more than three-quarters of all cases surveyed n = 440 (81.6%) assessed their peers as fraudsters on a continuum from very impressed as an intellectual to that of being impressed as an intellectual as compared to only n = 99 (18.4%) as somewhat impressed as an intellectual.

Conclusion: The typical fraudster in the general education sector could be mostly an accountant or a boss and holds a senior management position. The fraudster may commit the fraud once they are comfortable in their job and enjoy the trust and respect of colleagues. The fraudster is deemed to be an extrovert, intelligent, and has a high level of education.


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How to Cite

Paul Bernandicto Ngosa, & Jason Mwanza. (2021). Study of Profiling the Typical Fraudster in the General Education Sector in Zambia . International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering (IJASRE), ISSN:2454-8006, DOI: 10.31695/IJASRE, 7(8), 82–90.