Study of Seasonal Variation of Physicochemical Parameters of River Kaduna, Kaduna State Nigeria


  • Fadimatu Muhammad
  • Sa’idu Abdulkadir
  • JehuAuta



Physicochemical Parameters, Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Turbidity, TDS.


Background: The physiochemical parameters of a river tell much about its quality and suitability for both humans and the
survival of the living biota within it. The discharge of untreated wastewater into the surface water bodies such as streams and
rivers results in the pollution of such water environments. We aimed to determine the physicochemical parameters and also
determine the seasonal variation of the physicochemical parameters river Kaduna.
Methodology: The research was carried out within four areas in Kaduna North, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Selected sampling sites
include; Gamji Park, Kabala Costain, Malali and Unguwar Rimi. Monthly sampling of the four sites was carried out from each
sampling site for a period of eight months covering both the dry and the rainy season between 6:00 am and 8:00 am every sampling day. The following parameters were determined using standard laboratory techniques; temperature, pH, turbidity, total
dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, water hardness, nitrate-nitrogen and
phosphate-phosphorus. Data was analyzed using simple descriptive statistics to calculate the mean, standard error (SE) and
standard deviation of the parameters.
Results: The mean water temperature was 23.6±0.90C with a standard deviation of 2.5, the highest temperature (25.7±0.60C)
was recorded in the wet season. Mean pH was 7.9±0.1 with a standard deviation of 0.4, the wet and the dry season had the same
mean values of 7.9±0.1. The mean turbidity was 60.3±4.6 with a standard deviation of 12.8, the wet season had the highest value
(72.5±2.4 NTU). Mean TDS was 72.1±13.9 with a standard deviation of 38.9 and the highest TDS value of 92.7±22.9 mg/L was recorded in the dry season. The mean values of electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand was
135±27.7µs/cm, 2.6±0.1mg/L and1.3±0.1mg/L respectively whereas water hardness, nitrate-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus
had means of 143.5±13.0 mg(CaCO3L-1, 0.3±0.0mg/L and 0.1±0.1mg/L respectively.
Conclusion: physicochemical parameters were determined to be within the permissible level and wide seasonal variations were
seen among some parameters.




How to Cite

Fadimatu Muhammad, Sa’idu Abdulkadir, & JehuAuta. (2020). Study of Seasonal Variation of Physicochemical Parameters of River Kaduna, Kaduna State Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research and Engineering (IJASRE), ISSN:2454-8006, 6(1), 01–06.